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American Community Survey (ACS) - The ACS is an on-going survey that the Census Bureau plans to use to replace the long form census survey done every ten years, starting with the 2010 Census. It is a way to provide the data that communities need every year instead of once every ten years.

Annual Average Employment - The average number of people employed over a given year in a given occupation or industry. It provides a measure of average employment during the year without the effects of seasonal variations.

Average Annual Wage - Calculated by dividing total annual wages by the average of the twelve monthly employment levels. "Wages" are total gross wages paid to employees including bonuses, severance pay, year-end profit sharing, cash value of meals, lodging, and tips and employer paid contributions to individual retirement accounts.
See also - Average Weekly Wage.
Average Hourly Earnings - Calculated by dividing gross payrolls by total hours. Reflect the earnings of workers, including premium pay. They differ from wage rates, which are the amounts stipulated for a given unit of work or time.
Note - Average hourly earnings do not represent total labor costs per hour for the employer, because they exclude retroactive payments and irregular bonuses, employee benefits, and the employer's share of payroll taxes. Earnings for those employees not covered under production worker and non-supervisory categories are not reflected in the estimates.
See also - Employment Cost Index (ECI), Average Weekly Wage.
Average Weekly Wage - Derived by dividing total annual wages by fifty-two.
See also - Average Hourly Earnings.

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Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) - The BLS is an agency within the US Department of Labor and is the principal fact-finding agency for the Federal Government in the field of labor economics and statistics. The BLS collects, processes, analyzes, and disseminates essential statistical data relating to employment, unemployment, the labor force, productivity, prices, family expenditures, wages, industrial relations, and occupational safety and health. Well known data released by BLS include the Consumer Price Index, the Producer Price Index, the national unemployment rate, hours and earnings, and nonfarm employment levels.

Bureau of the Census - As part of the U.S. Department of Commerce, the Bureau of the Census conducts the Decennial Census of population and housing, the Economic Census every five years, and the on-going American Community Survey. The Census Bureau also conducts the monthly Current Population Survey (CPS) in cooperation with BLS. Data from this survey provide inputs for the calculation of unemployment statistics.

Business Cycle - Recurring expansion and contraction of the economy.
See also - Productivity, Recession, and Unemployment.

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Census - See Decennial Census.

Census Tract - A small relatively permanent statistical subdivision of a county delineated by local committees of census data users for the purpose of collecting and presenting census data. It is worth noting that census tracts conform with county lines (that is they are always sub-sets of a county), but may not follow zip code lines.
See also - Decennial Census, American Community Survey, and Bureau of the Census.

Civilian Labor Force - The civilian labor force comprises the total of all civilians age 16 and older classified as employed or unemployed. This gives employers a measure of the labor pool.
See also - Employed, Labor Force, Labor Force Participation Rate, and Unemployed.

Civilian Non-institutional Population - Total population age 16 or older excluding prison inmates or those hospitalized or in some other form of institution.
See also - Civilian Labor Force, Labor Force, Labor Force Participation Rate, and Unemployment.
Consumer Price Index (CPI) - A measure of the average change in prices over time for a set group of goods and services. The Bureau of Labor Statistics publishes CPIs for two population groups: (1) for all urban consumers (CPI-U) which covers approximately 80 percent of the total population and (2) for all urban wage earners and clerical workers (CPI-W) which covers 32 percent of the total population. Among the CPI components are the costs of housing, food, transportation, and energy. While the CPI is not technically a cost of living index, it is often used to indicate changes in the cost-of-living.
See also - Employment Cost Index, Inflation.

Core Inflation Rate - The rate of increase of prices of a set group of goods and services, excluding more volatile prices, such as food and energy prices.
See also - Consumer Price Index (CPI), Inflation.

Covered Employment and Wages - See Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages

Current Employment Statistics (CES) Survey - A monthly survey of nonfarm business establishments used to collect nonfarm payroll employment, worker hours and earnings, by industry and area. Through the Federal/State cooperative effort, these data are used to compute current monthly employment, hours and earnings estimates, by industry, for the nation, the 50 states and the District of Columbia, and over 250 Metropolitan Statistical Area’s (MSA) and Primary Metropolitan Statistical Area’s (PMSA).
See also - Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages, Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA).

Current Population Survey (CPS) - A monthly household survey of the civilian non-institutional population of the United States. This BLS survey provides labor market statistics (e.g., employment, unemployment, and wages) by industry, occupation, and demographic characteristics. The Bureau of the Census collects data for this survey in cooperation with BLS.
See also - Bureau of the Census, Demographics.
Cyclical Unemployment - Unemployment that results from periodic declines in the business cycle (for example, recessions). Downswings in the level of economic activity create unemployment as a result of inadequate demand for workers. During a recovery, cyclical unemployment will be reduced or eliminated.
See also - Unemployment, Recession.

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Data Limitations - Margin of error in collection methods, or incomplete data, which affect the accuracy of some statistical analysis.

Decennial Census - An enumeration or head count of the actual number of persons living in the U. S., required every ten years by the U.S. Constitution. Conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau, information is collected on population and housing for all geographic areas of the nation. The entire nation is divided into small sections called Census Tracts, and within each tract the Census bureau attempts to count the number of persons and demographic, economic, and housing characteristics of the individuals living in that tract. The first official US Census was done in 1790, the most recent count was done on April 1, 2000. The data in the census is key to planning for both private business and government.

See also - American Community Survey.

Demographics - Data related to population; size, components of change, and characteristics (e.g. age, education, etc.).

See also - Decennial Census, Current Population Survey.
Discouraged Workers - A term used to describe persons aged 16 or over without jobs who are not actively seeking employment because they believe that they would be unable to find a job. Even though discouraged workers would like to be employed, they are not counted as unemployed, or even as part of the labor force. This number, added to the number of counted unemployed, can give a better idea of the actual number of potential workers.
See also - Dislocated Workers.
Dislocated Occupations - Occupations to which workers who become unemployed are unlikely to return.
See also - Dislocated Workers.
Dislocated Workers - Workers who have become unemployed because of structural changes in an industry, natural disaster, or other factors, and have limited opportunity to return to their old industry or occupation.

Durable Goods - Manufactured items generally considered to have a normal life expectancy of three years or more. Examples are automobiles, furniture, household appliances, etc.
See also - Nondurable Goods.
Duration of Unemployment - Represents the length of time that unemployed persons had been looking for work at a given point in time.
See also - Unemployment.

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Earnings - A general term describing monetary compensation paid to individuals for work performed. Depending on the context, this might not include irregular items such as tips, commissions, profit sharing and bonuses, but may include overtime pay, vacation and sick leave pay, shift differential and hazardous duty pay.
See also - Income.

Economic Census - Profiles the US economy every 5 years, from the national to the local level. Results from the 2002 census will provide information on businesses operating at more than 21 million locations, giving key information on the number of businesses and employees, the value of shipments, sales, receipts, revenue and payroll.

See also - Bureau of the Census
Economic - Demographic Profiles - These are publications compiled and published every year by the Economic and Labor Market Information section of the Labor Department. They provide a concise overview of the economies of Vermont and its counties and towns, and contain information on population, unemployment, income and wages.

Employed - A condition in which persons 16 years of age or older worked for compensation in a business during the week which includes the 12th day of the month, or worked at least 15 hours (during the week which includes the 12th day of the month) as unpaid workers in a family business; or had jobs from which they were temporarily absent due to illness, bad weather, vacation or labor-management dispute. Employed is used to describe statistical employment payroll numbers that reflect the number of jobs rather than the number of persons employed.

See also - Employment (total).
Employment (nonfarm payroll) - A count of all persons who worked full- or part-time or received pay from a nonagricultural employer for any part of the pay period which included the 12th of the month. Because this count comes from a survey of employers, persons who work for two different companies would be counted twice. Therefore, nonfarm payroll employment is really a count of the number of jobs, rather than the number of persons employed. Persons may receive pay from a job if they are temporarily absent due to illness, bad weather, vacation, or labor-management dispute. This count is based on where the jobs are located, regardless of where the workers reside, and is therefore sometimes referred to as employment "by place of work". Nonfarm payroll employment data are collected and compiled based on the Current Employment Statistics (CES) survey, conducted by the Vermont Department of Labor. This count was formerly referred to as nonagricultural wage and salary employment.
See also - Employment (total), Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages, and Seasonal Adjustment.
Employment (total) - A count of all civilians 16 years of age or older who worked for compensation in a business or on a farm during the week which included the 12th day of the month; or worked at least 15 hours (during the week which includes the 12th day of the month) as unpaid workers in a family business; or had jobs from which they were temporarily absent due to illness, bad weather, vacation, or labor-management dispute. This count is based on the residence of the workers, and each worker is counted only once, even if they hold more than one job. Therefore, this is sometimes referred to as employment "by place of residence." The Vermont Department of Labor’s Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) staff compiles total employment data.
See also - Local Area Unemployment Statistics, Employment (nonfarm payroll), Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages, and Seasonal Adjustment.
Employment Cost Index - A measure of the change in the cost of labor, free from the influence of employment shifts among occupations and industries. Compensation used in the ECI includes all wages, salaries, and benefit costs paid by employers. Simply put, it measures the change in the total cost of labor to employers and so includes the cost of benefits as well as wages.
See also - Unit Labor Costs, Producer Price Index, and Full Employment.
ES-202 - See Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages

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Frictional Unemployment - Unemployment resulting from the lags involved in the redeployment of labor. If the number of vacancies in an occupation was exactly equal to the number seeking employment, there "should" be no unemployment. In practice, though, it takes time for the unemployed to find vacancies, be interviewed, and be hired. At any one time, therefore, there exists a small pool of unemployed owing to these "frictions" in the workings of the labor market. Frictional unemployment results primarily from people looking for their first jobs or those who quit one job to look for another.
See also - Unemployment.
Full Employment - The level of employment, or unemployment rate, which provides the maximum sustainable rate of economic growth and Gross Domestic Product without resulting in accelerating inflation. A Full Employment rate that is also just above the rate which will cause inflationary pressure, is called the Non-Accelerating Inflation Rate of Unemployment (NAIRU).
See also - Non-Accelerating Inflation Rate of Unemployment (NAIRU).

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Goods Producing Industries - Those industries that primarily produce tangible products. The Goods Producing domain includes Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting; Mining, Construction, and Manufacturing.
See also - Durable Goods, Nondurable Goods, and Service Providing Industries.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) - The total value of all goods and services produced by the U.S. economy. GDP is compiled quarterly by the U.S. Department of Commerce. CES employment and earnings data are used for advance GDP estimates. ES-202 wage data are used for the final GDP estimates.
See also - Gross State Product.
Gross State Product - The total market value, in terms of current dollars, of all final goods and service produced in the state in one year.
See also - Gross Domestic Product.

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Income - A recurrent benefit, usually measured in money, which derives from capital and labor. The major elements of income are wages (including tips and bonuses), rents, interest and dividend income, transfer payments, and proprietors’ income.

Industry - A group of establishments that produce similar products or provide similar services.
See also - North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS).
Industry Employment - The number of filled positions in a particular industry at a particular time. This does not necessarily imply full-time or year-round positions.
See also - North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS), Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages, and Current Employment Statistics Survey.
Inflation - The rate of increase in the general price level for a given area from one period to the next. The two most common price indices used to measure inflation are the Consumer Price Index (CPI) and the GDP price deflator.
See also - Consumer Price Index, Employment Cost Index, Core inflation Rate.

Inflationary Expectation - Anticipation of higher inflation contributing to faster price increases.

Internship - An experience that takes place at a work site, paid or unpaid, during which an intern (often a student, but not always) works with an employee to complete structured projects or activities specific to that business or occupation.

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Job Shadow - An experience that takes place at a work site in which an individual observes and interacts with an employee to learn about a specific job. As an exploratory exercise, teachers (employers and workers) share first-hand knowledge about occupations and businesses in their region. The individual gains real life experience, which may lead them to improved career choice decisions. Job shadowing is also being used as part of the interview process by some employers.

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Labor Force - Consists of the population, aged 16 and over, which is employed or unemployed, including those in active military duty.
See also - Local Area Unemployment Statistics, Civilian Labor Force, Labor Force Participation Rate, Employed, and Unemployed.
Labor Force Participation Rate - The percent of people 16 years of age and older in a specific population who are considered part of the labor force (i.e., either employed or unemployed). Indicates the degree to which a population is working; a low rate may indicate a reliance on other forms of income, and a high rate may indicate a tighter labor market.
See also - Civilian Labor Force, Labor Force, Employed, and Unemployed.
Labor Force Turnover Rate - All job changing which occurs within the labor force, excluding permanent separations from the labor force. Two major types of labor force turnover include: 1) lateral or vertical movement within an occupation; and 2) transfers between occupations, either in the same firm or to other firms.
See also - Turnover Rate, JOLTS (U.S. Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey at BLS).

Labor Market Information - See Workforce Information.

Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) - A federal/State cooperative program that produces labor force, employment, unemployment, and unemployment rate estimates for states and local areas.

Local Employment Dynamics (LED) - LED is a partnership between state labor market information (LMI) agencies and the U.S. Census Bureau to supply new labor market measures. The Census Bureau merges current demographic information with data from unemployment wage records and businesses supplied each quarter by the state LMI agencies to produce the data found on the LED web site (at Census). These measures

  • are Local at the state and sub state level,
  • supply statistics on Employment, job creation, turnover, and earnings by industry, age and sex,
  • provide Dynamic information on the rapidly changing economy.
See also - Quarterly Workforce Indicators (QWI).

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Mean - The most popular measurement of central tendency, the arithmetic mean is calculated by summing all the values under consideration and dividing by the number of values. Given the following 7 data points: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 5, and 9; the mean is 4.143 (1+2+3+4+5+5+9)/7).

Median - A measurement of central tendency, the median or middle point is the point at which there are an equal number of data points above and below that data point. Given the following 7 data points: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 5, and 9; the median (the middle value) is 4.

Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) - A metropolitan statistical area consists of a core area containing a substantial population nucleus, together with adjacent communities having a high degree of economic and social integration with that core. In the six New England states, MSAs are based on city and town boundaries, as determined by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget. Current metropolitan statistical area definitions are based on the 2000 Census and became effective January 1, 2005. The title of an MSA consists of the names of up to three of its principal cities. The outlying towns included in the MSA meet specified requirements of commuting to or from the central cities. Each MSA must include an urbanized area with a population of at least 50,000. In Vermont, there is one MSA:
Burlington - South Burlington MSA: consists of all of Chittenden county; Ferrisburgh, Monkton, Starksboro, and Vergennes in Addison county; Fairfax, Fletcher, Georgia, and St. Albans city and town in Franklin county; all of Grand Isle county except Alburg; plus Cambridge and Duxbury.

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National Compensation Survey - A BLS survey that provides information on average weekly or hourly earnings and compensation for selected occupations.
See also - Employment Cost Index.
Natural Increases in Population - The number of births minus the number of deaths in a specified area over a specified period of time.

Net Migration - The number of people who moved into an area minus the number of people who moved out during a specified period of time.

Nominal Dollars/Income - The face, actual, or par value of currency with no regard to actual purchasing power over time. In other words, this is "dollar value" not adjusted for inflation. Nominal income is the number of dollars received as wages, rent, interest or profits.
See also - Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Consumer Price Index (CPI).
Non-Accelerating Inflation Rate of Unemployment (NAIRU) - The theoretical rate of unemployment below which inflation rises.
See also - Full Employment.
Nondurable Goods - Manufactured items generally expected to last for less than three years. In terms of manufacturing industries, they would fall into the North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) 2-digit code 32. Food, beverages, clothing, shoes, and gasoline products are examples.
See also - Durable Goods.
Nonfarm Payroll Employment - see Employment (nonfarm payroll)

North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) - A system of identifying industry activity. NAICS was developed jointly by the U.S., Canada, and Mexico to provide comparability in statistics about business activity across North America. NAICS replaced the U.S. Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system.
See also - Industry.

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Occupation - A collection of jobs with similar duties (e.g., secretary, machinist, accountant, truck driver), regardless of industry. Most occupations are found in more than one industry.
See also - Occupation Classifications.
Occupation Classifications - Systems of collective job descriptions which attempt to place individual jobs into general, but recognizable categories. Currently, three occupational classifications systems are in general use in the U.S.: 1. Standard Occupational Classification (SOC), 2. Occupational Information Network (O*NET), and 3. Census occupational codes. The SOC is used in employer wage surveys, conducted in every state in the U.S., and is found in many occupational wage publications. The O*NET, based on the SOC, forms the taxonomy of the nation's primary source of occupational information.
See also - Occupational Employment Statistics (OES),
Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) - A federal state cooperative program, which collects detailed occupational data by industry in a three-year cycle. The Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey is a biannual mail survey measuring occupational employment and occupational wage rates for wage and salary workers in nonfarm establishments, by industry. On a national level, the survey samples approximately 400,000 establishments per year, taking 3 years to fully collect the sample of 1.2 million establishments. The coding system associated with this program, based on work performed and occupational descriptions, is known as the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) codes.

Opportunity Cost - The amount of something that must be given up or sacrificed to obtain something else. For instance, if you choose to spend $50.00 on football tickets, you give up the opportunity to buy a $50.00 savings bond, so one of the opportunity costs of the football tickets is the purchase and possible investment return of the savings bond.

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Pay Period - The accounting period an employer sets up to systematically count employee hours worked in order to pay for work done (earnings). This period of time will vary. Example: A bi-weekly pay period counts hours for a two week period and remits "checks" to employees

Payroll - Total wages paid by a business to its employees for work performed during the pay period (weekly, monthly, etc.)
See also - Average Annual Wage, Average Weekly Wage.

Per Capita Personal Income - Per capita personal income is the total amount of income earned in specifically defined geographic region divided by the population in that region.

Personal Income - An estimate of total gross income that an individual receives from wages, proprietor's income, rents, dividends, interest payments, and transfer payments.

Poverty Level - The poverty level is a determined by the United States Housing and Urban Development Department to estimate what it costs to minimally feed, cloth, and provide shelter for families of different sizes. The most common quoted family size is four, but the guidelines give values for families from 1 to 8 persons. The guidelines also give a numeric amount for each person over 8 in the family. Refers to an income level below which the recipients are considered to be living in poverty. This level is adjusted each year, and varies depending on the number of members in each household. The U.S. Census Bureau measures the poverty level.

Producer Price Index - A family of indexes that measures the average change over time in the selling prices received by domestic producers of goods and services. PPI measures price changes from the perspective of the seller. This contrasts with other measures, such as the Consumer Price Index (CPI), that measures price changes from the purchaser's perspective, and the Employment Cost Index, that measures cost changes from an employer's perspective. Sellers' and purchasers' prices may differ due to government subsidies, sales and excise taxes, and distribution costs. PPI data are commonly used in escalating purchase and sales contracts. These contracts typically specify dollar amounts to be paid at some point in the future. It is often desirable to include an escalation clause that accounts for increases in input prices. For example, a long-term contract for bread may be escalated for changes in wheat prices by applying the percent change in the PPI for wheat to the contracted price for bread. Other uses of PPI are as an economic indicator and as a deflator of other economic series.
See also - Consumer Price Index, Employment Cost Index.

Productivity - Amount of output by worker per unit of labor hours.
See also - Consumer Price Index.

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Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW) (also called Covered Employment and Wages) - A Federal/State cooperative program, which collects and compiles employment and wage data for workers covered by State unemployment insurance (UI) laws, and Federal civilian workers covered by unemployment compensation for federal employees (UCFE). The QCEW programs gets its data from quarterly tax reports submitted to the State Employment and Security Agencies (Vermont Department of Labor) by employers subject to state unemployment insurance (UI) laws and from Federal Agencies. These reports provide the number of people employed each month and the gross wages paid to all employees each quarter. The program was previously known as the ES-202.
See also - Employment (nonfarm payroll), Employment (total).
Quarterly Workforce Indicators (QWI) - The U.S. Census Bureau produces the Quarterly Workforce Indicators from the LED partnership with state labor market informaton agencies. Eight labor force indicators are published quarterly in QWI Online (at Census). The eight indicators include employment, new hires, turnover, and average earnings. They are available by state, substate area, year and quarter, industry, sex, and age group. Data for Vermont begins from 2000 and are refreshed each quarter, about nine months after the end of the quarter.

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Real Dollars/ Income - To understand "Real Dollars/Income" one has to understand "Nominal Dollars/Income." The adjective "nominal" describes the measurement of Dollars or Income in current prices or buying power. The adjective "Real," on the other hand, describes those same Dollars or Income in constant prices but adjusted for inflation as to record the real buying power of the Dollars or Income at a given point in time.

Real Per Capita Personal Income - Per capita personal income (pcpi) of an area after adjusting for inflation.
See also - Per Capita Personal Income.
Recession - A recurring period of decline in total output, income, employment, and trade, usually lasting from six months to a year, and marked by widespread contractions in many sectors of the economy.
See also - Unemployment Rate, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and Per Capita Personal Income.
Regional Economic Information System (REIS) - Employment Data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis including farm, nonfarm, military, civilian, and self-employment. Annual State data is available 8 months after year’s end, metro and county data is available 16 months after year’s end. This data, despite the time lag, is the most comprehensive government source of employment by industry for state, county, and MSA area. REIS has extensive geographic coverage that includes all states, MSAs and counties, and data is available back to 1969.

Replacement Openings - Openings which results when individuals leave an occupation for a variety of reasons and must be replaced. It should be taken into account that if employment in an occupation is to grow or remain the same, those individuals who left the occupation must be replaced. In most cases, total occupational separations are replacement needs and a source of job openings.

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Seasonal Adjustment - A statistical process which removes the effect of typical seasonal events such as summer breaks for school or weather-related fluctuations in construction, lodging and ski areas. Data that have been seasonally adjusted are more likely to reflect true changes in the economy.
See also - Seasonal Unemployment, Employment (nonfarm payroll), Employment (total), and Unemployment Rate.
Seasonal Unemployment - Unemployment associated with the rather predictable swings in employment and job seeking that occurs at similar times each year. These seasonal events include opening and closing of schools, seasonal changes in the weather reducing or expanding construction activities, hotel/lodging demand, ski area activities, and other swings that follow a more or less regular pattern each year.
See also - Seasonal Adjustment, Unemployment.

Service Providing Industries - Those industries that primarily provide services. The Service Providing domain includes Wholesale and Retail Trade, Transportation and Warehousing, Utilities, Information, Finance and Insurance, Real Estate and Rental and Leasing, Professional and Technical Services, Management of Companies and Enterprises, Administrative and Waste Services, Educational Services, Health Care and Social Assistance, Arts and Entertainment and Recreation, Accommodation and Food Services, Other Services except Public, and Public Administration (government).

See also - Goods Producing Industries.

Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) - Replaced by the North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS).

Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) - This is an occupational coding system that was presented by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) to replace and consolidate several previous coding systems used to classify occupations. The coding systems being consolidated include the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES), the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT), and the grouping of occupational titles used by the Census based on survey responses. The new standardized SOC codes were released by the BLS in 1998, but to minimize complications the system is being phased in slowly, and will be fully implemented in 2005 when publications are available based on the 2000 census.

See also - Occupational Employment Statistics (OES).

Statistically Valid - Data that includes accurate collection and sampling methods and a period of reference, using generally accepted statistical methods.

Structural Unemployment - Unemployment caused by a long-term change in the economic structure of an area. This unemployment tends to be long-term in nature as it results from the general problem of skill and location mismatches between jobs and workers.

See also - Unemployment.

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Technological Unemployment - A form of structural unemployment created by the substitution of automated equipment for labor, or by changing technologies.
See also - Unemployment.
Trend - A pattern of that demonstrates a direction and/or statistical tendency.

Turnover Rate - The rate at which a firm replaces workers. The associated productivity costs, along with the overhead costs associated with recruiting and training replacement staff can be substantial.
See also - Labor Force Turnover Rate.

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Unemployed - Persons 16 and over who had no job at all during the week which includes the 12th day of the month, had taken some specific steps to obtain a job within the prior month, and were available for work, expecting recall from a layoff, or waiting to begin new employment within 30 days. Persons not in the labor force, including so-called discouraged workers, are distinguished from the unemployed by the fact that they are not actively seeking work.
See also - Local Area Unemployment Statistics, Unemployment Rate.
Unemployment - A situation that exists when members of the non-institutional civilian labor force wish to work but cannot find a job. It is considered an involuntary situation instead of one in which persons voluntarily choose leisure over work. There are several types of unemployment categorized by their uses and characteristics. They are: cyclical unemployment, frictional unemployment, seasonal unemployment, structural unemployment, and technological unemployment.
See also - Unemployment Rate.
Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE) - A program to provide Unemployment Insurance (UI) benefits to individuals whose salary/wages were earned in Federal civilian employment.

Unemployment Insurance - A term used to describe either the government program, the actual benefits received by unemployed workers, or the Vermont Department of Labor staff who assist unemployed workers to file for and receive their unemployment insurance benefits (checks).

Unemployment Rate - The percent of the non-institutional civilian labor force which is currently unable to find employment, but which is actively seeking employment. It is calculated by dividing the number of unemployed by the number in the labor force at a given point in time. This is NOT the percentage of the population who are unemployed, but rather an estimate of the percentage of those who want to work, are able to work, and are actively seeking work but are unable to find employment.
See also - Local Area Unemployment Statistics, Unemployed, and Seasonal Adjustment.
Unit Labor Costs - Unit labor costs - the cost of labor input required to produce one unit of output - are computed as the ratio of labor costs in nominal terms divided by real output. Unit labor costs - the cost of labor input required to produce one unit of output - are computed as the ratio of labor costs in nominal terms divided by real output.
See also - Employment Cost Index, Producer Price Index.

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Workforce Information (also called Labor Market Information) - The body of data available on a particular labor market, including employment and unemployment statistics, occupational statistics, and average hours and earnings data.

Workforce Investment Act (WIA) - The WIA reforms Federal job training programs and creates a new comprehensive work force investment system. Streamlines services through the One-stop delivery system. Programs and providers will co-locate, coordinate, and integrate activities and information.
See also - Workforce Investment Board (WIB).
Workforce Investment Board (WIB) - Each of the thirteen Workforce Investment Boards are made up of partner agencies, business employers and labor boards. By law these regional boards are made up of at least 51 percent employers. The responsibilities of the WIB are to focus on strategic planning, policy development and oversight of the local work force investment system. The WIBs are overseen by the Human Resources Investment Council (HRIC).
See also - Workforce Investment Act.

Adapted from: Oregon State of Vermont Department of Labor